The cause is not well understood. It is not contagious. It is inflammatory and involves the immune system . It appears to have a genetic component as well as an environmental one. It has been reported both in related and unrelated individuals living in the same area. Up to 40 people per 100,000 are affected in the ., the majority of them between 20 and 40 years old. In the . and in the Caribbean, sarcoidosis is more common in those of African descent, but worldwide about 80% of those with sarcoidosis are white. It is relatively common in Scandinavia and Northern Ireland, but rare in China, Japan, and Africa. For some reason, those who have moved from a part of the world where the prevalence is low to a part of the world where it is high tend to take on the risk of the higher prevalence area.
Athletes, like all others, may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take particular medications. If the medication an athlete is required to take to treat an illness or condition happens to fall under the prohibited list, a therapeutic use exemption may give that athlete the authorization to take the needed medicine. Criteria for granting a therapeutic use exemption are 1.) The athlete would experience significant health problems without taking the prohibited substance or method, 2.) The therapeutic use of the substance would not produce significant enhancement of performance, and 3.) There is no reasonable therapeutic alternative to the use of the otherwise prohibited substance or method. Note hormone replacement therapy (HRT), . supplementing with prescribed testosterone in any form to raise testosterone levels due to natural decreases that occur with aging (even if to just elevate levels to within ‘normal’ ranges), is NOT considered a medicinal exception. Persons using HRT would not be eligible for WPA/NANBF/IPE competition.