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Never before have individuals had to adapt to social environments
defined by such magnitudes of ethnic diversity and cultural differentiation.
However, neurobiological evidence informing about strategies
to reduce xenophobic sentiment and foster altruistic cooperation
with outsiders is scarce. In a series of experiments settled in the
context of the current refugee crisis, we tested the propensity of 183
Caucasian participants to make donations to people in need, half of
whom were refugees (outgroup) and half of whom were natives
(ingroup). Participants scoring low on xenophobic attitudes exhibited
an altruistic preference for the outgroup, which further increased after
nasal delivery of the neuropeptide oxytocin. In contrast, participants
with higher levels of xenophobia generally failed to exhibit enhanced
altruism toward the outgroup. This tendency was only countered by
pairing oxytocin with peer-derived altruistic norms, resulting in a 74%
increase in refugee-directed donations. Collectively, these findings
reveal the underlying sociobiological conditions associated with
outgroup-directed altruism by showing that charitable social cues cooccurring
with enhanced activity of the oxytocin system reduce the
effects of xenophobia by facilitating prosocial behavior toward

T-prop testosterone propionate

t-prop testosterone propionate


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