Sodium propionate

For laboratory use, sodium acetate is inexpensive and usually purchased instead of being synthesized. It is sometimes produced in a laboratory experiment by the reaction of acetic acid , commonly in the 5–8% solution known as vinegar , with sodium carbonate ("washing soda"), sodium bicarbonate ("baking soda"), or sodium hydroxide ("lye", or "caustic soda"). Any of these reactions produce sodium acetate and water. When a sodium and carbonate ion-containing compound is used as the reactant, the carbonate anion from sodium bicarbonate or carbonate, reacts with hydrogen from the carboxyl group (-COOH) in acetic acid, forming carbonic acid . Carbonic acid readily decomposes under normal conditions into gaseous carbon dioxide and water. This is the reaction taking place in the well-known "volcano" that occurs when the household products, baking soda and vinegar, are combined.

In rabbits, fetal weight reduction and cleft palate were observed at a fluticasone propionate dose approximately times the MRHDID for adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 4 mcg/kg/day). However, no teratogenic effects were reported at fluticasone propionate doses up to approximately 20 times the MRHDID for adults (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal oral dose up to 300 mcg/kg/day). No fluticasone propionate was detected in the plasma in this study, consistent with the established low bioavailability following oral administration [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ].

Sodium thiosulfate is used as a component in hand warmers and other chemical heating pads that produce heat by exothermic crystallization of a super cooled solution.
Hypo is used in Bleach.
In pH testing of bleach substances.
To de-chlorinate tap water for aquariums or treat effluent from waste water treatments prior to release into rivers. The amount of Sodium thiosulphate required can vary with the pH of the water. A range of approximately 2 to 7 parts sodium thiosulfate to neutralize one part chlorine is generally suggested. To neutralize 1 liter of a 200 ppm chlorine solution, approximately - grams of sodium thiosulfate would be required.
It is used to lower chlorine levels in swimming pools and spas following super chlorination.
It is used to remove iodine stains, . after the explosion of nitrogen triiodide.
It is used in bacteriological water assessment.
It is used in the tanning of leather.
Melted sodium thiosulfate is very easy to overcool to room temperature and when crystallization is forced, the sudden temperature jump to can be experienced by touch. It is used in phase change material.
Sodium thiosulfate is used in paper industry.
It is used in medicine and as disinfectant. A low amount can be found in natural hot springs water, but they do have trace sodium sulfide too, which is why it can used to treat skin problems and some bathe in it to relieve them of skin problems, rheumatism, although indirectly. It is systemically for cyanide or arsenic poisoning and topically as an anti­fungal.
It is used in electroplating.
As part of patina recipes for copper alloys.
Often used in pharmaceutical preparations as an anionic surfactant to aid in dispersion.

Sodium propionate

sodium propionate

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