Propionate pronunciation

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Drinking alcohol may cause rhinitis as well as worsen asthma (see alcohol-induced respiratory reactions ). In certain populations, particularly those of East Asian countries such as Japan, these reactions have a nonallergic basis. [27] In other populations, particularly those of European descent, a genetic variant in the gene that metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, ADH1B, is associated with alcohol-induced rhinitis. It is suggested that this variant metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde too quickly for further processing by ALDH2 and thereby leads to the accumulation of acetaldehyde and rhinitis symptoms. [28] [29] In these cases, alcohol-induced rhinitis may be of the mixed rhinitis type and, it seems likely, most cases of alcohol-induced rhinitis in non-Asian populations reflect true allergic response to the non-ethanol and/or contaminants in alcoholic beverages, particularly when these beverages are wines or beers. [27] Alcohol-exacerbated rhinitis is more frequent in individuals with a history of rhinitis exacerbated by aspirin. [30]

Resistance to ketoconazole has been observed in a number of clinical fungal isolates, including Candida albicans . Experimentally, resistance usually arises as a result of mutations in the sterol biosynthesis pathway. Defects in the sterol 5-6 desaturase enzyme reduce the toxic effects of azole inhibition of the 14-alpha demethylation step. Multidrug-resistance (MDR) genes can also play a role in reducing cellular levels of the drug. As azole antifungals all act at the same point in the sterol pathway, resistant isolates are normally cross-resistant to all members of the azole family. [37] [38]

Propionate pronunciation

propionate pronunciation

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