The ATP yield for every oxidation cycle is theoretically a maximum yield of 17, as NADH produces 3 ATP, FADH 2 produces 2 and a full rotation of the citric acid cycle produces 12. [ citation needed ] In practice it's closer to 14 ATP for a full oxidation cycle as in practice the theoretical yield isn't attained - it's generally closer to ATP per NADH molecule produced, for each FADH 2 Molecule produced and this equates to 10 per cycle of the TCA [ citation needed ] (according to the P/O ratio ), broken down as follows:
Middle East & Africa is expected to have significant growth over the forecast period. Central & South America is expected to witness high growth in the forecast period. Global calcium propionate market is consolidated with top five companies accounting for a major share in the market. Some of the major companies in the market include Perstorp Holdings AB, Macco Organiques Inc., AB Mauri, Kemira and Niacet Corporation. Other companies are Addcon Gmbh, Krishna Chemicals, . Food Chemicals Co. Ltd., Impextraco NV, etc. Industry participants are expected to invest in R&D to expand product lines and functionality.