Propionate fatty acid

Hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is widely practiced, typical conditions involving – MPa of H2 pressure, 150 ºC, and nickel supported on silica. This treatment affords saturated fatty acids, as reflected in their iodine number . Hydrogenated fatty acids are less prone toward rancidification . Since the saturated fatty acids are higher melting than the unsaturated precursors, the process is called hardening. Related technology is used to convert vegetable oils into margarine . The hydrogenation of triglycerides is advantageous because the carboxylic acids degrade the nickel catalysts, affording nickel soaps. During partial hydrogenation, unsaturated fatty acids can be isomerized from cis to trans configuration. [18]

Recently, a specific peptide inhibitor for ATGL was isolated from white blood cells, specifically mononuclear cells. This peptide was originally identifed as being involved in the regulation of the G 0 to G 1 transition of the cell cycle . This peptide was, therefore, called G0G1 switch protein 2 (G0S2). The protein is found in numerous tissues, with highest concentrations in adipose tissue and liver. In adipose tissue G0S2 expression is very low during fasting but increases after feeding. Conversely, fasting or PPARα-agonists increase hepatic G0S2 expression. The protein has been shown to localize to LDs, cytoplasm, ER, and mitochondria. These different subcellular localizations likely relate to multiple functions for G0S2 in regulating lipolysis, the cell cycle , and, possibly, apoptosis via its ability to interact with the mitochondrial antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. With respect to ATGL regulation, the binding of the enzyme to LDs and subsequent is dependent on a physical interaction between the N-terminal region of G0S2 and the patatin domain of ATGL.

Propionate fatty acid

propionate fatty acid

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